The radius of the Earth’s very nearly circular orbit around the sun is 1.5Ã—1011m. As the Earth revolves around the Sun, it experiences a centripetal acceleration. This is because the Earth’s orbital path is not a perfect circle, but rather an ellipse. As a result, the Earth is constantly accelerating towards the Sun as it tries to maintain its orbit. The magnitude of this acceleration can be calculated using the following equation:
a = GM / r2
Where G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the Sun, and r is the radius of the Earth’s orbit. plugging in the values for G, M, and r, we get an acceleration of about 2.94 x 10-3 m/s2. This may not seem like much, but over the course of a year, it adds up to a significant amount of energy.
The Sun’s gravity is not the only force acting on the Earth. The Earth also experiences a centrifugal force due to its rotation around its own axis. This force is directed outward from the center of the Earth and acts to counter the Sun’s gravitational pull. As a result, the net force on the Earth is not always directed towards the Sun.
The magnitude of the centrifugal force can be calculated using the following equation:
F = mv2 / r
Where m is the mass of the object (in this case, the Earth), v is the velocity of rotation, and r is the radius of rotation. Plugging in values for the Earth’s mass and radius of rotation, we get a centrifugal force of about 3.10 x 10-5 N.
The net force on the Earth is the vector sum of the Sun’s gravitational force and the centrifugal force. The direction of this net force is always towards the perihelion, which is the point in the Earth’s orbit closest to the Sun. As a result, the Earth’s orbit is not a perfect circle, but rather an ellipse.
The eccentricity of an ellipse is a measure of how “eccentric” it is. An eccentricity of 0 corresponds to a perfect circle, while an eccentricity of 1 corresponds to a parabola. The eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit is about 0.0167, which means it is slightly eccentric.
The perihelion of the Earth’s orbit occurs on January 3rd, and the aphelion (the point farthest from the Sun) occurs on July 4th. As a result, the Earth is closer to the Sun in January than it is in July. This difference in distance causes a difference in the amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth. It also causes a difference in the strength of the Sun’s gravitational pull on the Earth.
As a result of these differences, the Earth’s orbit is not perfectly circular. The eccentricity of the orbit causes the Earth to speed up as it approaches perihelion and to slow down as it approaches aphelion. This variation in speed causes the Earth to experience a centripetal acceleration.
The radius of the earth’s very nearly circular orbit around the sun is 1.5Ã—1011m. The circumference of the orbit is then 2Ã—Ï€Ã—1.5Ã—1011m=9.4Ã—1011m. So, for one complete orbit, the earth travels 9.4Ã—1011m.
There are 365 days in a year (366 days every 4 years), so there are 365 orbits per year, or 1 orbit every 3.156Ã—107s. Thus, the speed of the earth’s orbit around the sun is 9.4Ã—1011m/3.156Ã—107s=29.78km/s
The speed of light is 3.0×108 m/s, so it would take light 10 minutes to go around the earth’s orbit.
The radius of the sun’s very nearly circular orbit around the Milky Way’s center is 2.4Ã—1017m. The circumference of the orbit is then 2Ã—Ï€Ã—2.4Ã—1017m=1.5Ã—1018m. So, for one complete orbit, the sun travels 1.5Ã—1018m.
There are 250 million years in a galactic year (250,000,000 years), so there are 250 million orbits per year, or 1 orbit every 6 thousand years. Thus, the speed of the sun’s orbit around the Milky Way is 1.5Ã—1018m/6 thousand years=25 million km/hr.